Health & Welfare

Determining ion concentrations for Litopenaeus vannamei culture in freshwater

Future increases in U.S. shrimp farming are likely to be inland, which entails the use of ground waters with an ion concentration vastly different from seawater. 

Anion-cation balance in water
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Anion-cation balance in water

The ionic composition of inland well water can vary from suitable to toxic to cultured animals. Reliable data on concentrations of major cations (calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium) and major anions (bicarbonate, sulfate, and chloride) is therefore important in the management of waters for inland shrimp farming.